In Brief

Race, Insurance, and ED Visits for Pediatric Crohn’s Disease
Race, Insurance, and ED Visits for Pediatric Crohn’s Disease 1024 680 Jeb Phillips
Close up color photo of little boy holding hands on his belly

Black children and children insured by Medicaid make more repeat emergency department visits for Crohn’s disease than their white and privately insured peers. In what appears to be the first nationally representative study evaluating the impact of race and insurance status on emergency department treatment for Crohn’s disease, a team of physicians and researchers at…

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Difficult, But Essential Conversations: Talking With Kids About Suicide
Difficult, But Essential Conversations: Talking With Kids About Suicide 1024 575 Gina Bericchia

Experts say open conversations with kids about suicide could save lives. As kids head back to school this year, many of them will be struggling. According to national statistics, we lose more than 2,000 children and teens per year to suicide. Experts say parents who check in regularly with their child could have a life-saving…

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Housing for Health: An Early Look at What Can Happen When a Pediatric Health System Begins to Treat a Neighborhood as a Patient
Housing for Health: An Early Look at What Can Happen When a Pediatric Health System Begins to Treat a Neighborhood as a Patient 150 150 Abbie Roth

In a recent publication in the journal Pediatrics, researchers from Nationwide Children’s Hospital present a case study for treating a neighborhood as a patient. Neighborhood effect syndrome, characterized by symptoms of extreme poverty including blight, housing insecurity, racial segregation, trauma, violence, poorly performing schools, low social cohesion and support and environmental toxins, has debilitating consequences…

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Guidance on Counseling Children at Risk for Fertility and Sexual Function Issues
Guidance on Counseling Children at Risk for Fertility and Sexual Function Issues 150 150 Jeb Phillips

Many childhood medical conditions and treatments can affect reproductive health. A new report from the American Academy of Pediatrics explains when and how doctors should address those concerns. While fertility and sexual function are most often considered adult issues, even very young children may have conditions that will have an impact on reproductive health later…

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Antibiotic-Induced Disruption of Intestinal Microbiota Leads to Increased Mortality From a Respiratory Viral Infection
Antibiotic-Induced Disruption of Intestinal Microbiota Leads to Increased Mortality From a Respiratory Viral Infection 150 150 Lauren Dembeck

Recent study indicates that antibiotic use disrupts gastrointestinal microbial communities and can indirectly influence host immune response, even in distant tissues. “The indiscriminate and overuse of antibiotics may have further reaching consequences than just evolution of antibacterial-resistant superbugs,” says physician-scientist Mitchell Grayson, MD, lead author of a new study published in Frontiers in Immunology. Dr. Grayson, who…

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Preclinical Gene Therapy Study Shows Muscle Restoration in Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Model
Preclinical Gene Therapy Study Shows Muscle Restoration in Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Model 150 150 Kevin Mayhood

Tests of NT-3 gene therapy on mouse models suggest potential to treat a host of muscle-wasting conditions.

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QI Project Improves Response Time to Nurse Triage Phone Calls in Busy ENT Practice
QI Project Improves Response Time to Nurse Triage Phone Calls in Busy ENT Practice 1024 683 Abbie Roth

A high-volume pediatric otolaryngology practice receives a lot of phone calls from patients and families. The practice at Nationwide Children’s Hospital, which sees 32,000 clinic visits and 9,000 surgical patients each year, averaged more than 200 triage calls per week over the last 5 years. The response times to those calls needing clinician input ranged…

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Could Earlier Spirometry Get CF Inpatients Home Sooner?
Could Earlier Spirometry Get CF Inpatients Home Sooner? 150 150 Katie Brind'Amour, PhD, MS, CHES

A retrospective chart review suggests early spirometry is associated with shorter length of stay. As multicenter studies examine whether length of hospital stay and duration of treatment can be safely shortened for cystic fibrosis-related pulmonary exacerbations, physician-researchers at Nationwide Children’s Hospital have been exploring another unresolved angle related to these admissions: when to do pulmonary…

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Reducing Radiation Exposure and Imaging Costs for Children With Appendicitis
Reducing Radiation Exposure and Imaging Costs for Children With Appendicitis 1024 575 Rachael Hardison
Black and white photo of boy sitting up on hospital bed

Appendicitis is one of the most common indications for abdominal surgery in children. Accurate, efficient diagnosis is critical for initiating timely treatment. Current imaging options for diagnosing appendicitis include ultrasound and computed tomography (CT). CT scans, while readily available and highly sensitive, require radiation exposure that can increase the risk of malignancy over the child’s…

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More Screening Needed for Young Females at Risk for von Willebrand Disease
More Screening Needed for Young Females at Risk for von Willebrand Disease 1024 575 Mary Bates, PhD
Black and white image of teen girl posing outside

A new study finds most girls with heavy menstrual bleeding are not screened for the bleeding disorder. Despite recommendations by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, approximately 90 percent of girls with heavy menstrual bleeding are not being screened for von Willebrand disease, according to a new study from Nationwide Children’s Hospital. “Von Willebrand disease is…

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Why Obese Women Have More Surgical Infections After Cesarean Delivery
Why Obese Women Have More Surgical Infections After Cesarean Delivery 1024 575 Jeb Phillips
Illustration showing the precise pattern of a biofilm - a perfect, 3D matrix

Even though all pregnant woman typically undergo a standardized antiseptic preparation before a cesarean delivery, obese women are twice as likely to develop a surgical site infection after the procedure as women with a normal body mass index. A new, first-of-its-kind study from The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center and Nationwide Children’s Hospital shows why — and…

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Crafty Hepatitis E Virus Uses Decoy to Evade Immune System
Crafty Hepatitis E Virus Uses Decoy to Evade Immune System 1024 683 Kevin Mayhood

Researchers find a related protein cloaking the virus has differences that could become treatment targets. A protein that doctors use as a marker of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is not directly involved in the virus lifecycle but acts as a decoy drawing away antibodies, helping HEV evade the immune system and thrive, researchers in…

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Improving Feeding and Growth in Children With Cleft Palate
Improving Feeding and Growth in Children With Cleft Palate 1024 575 Mary Bates, PhD
Black and white photo of baby bottle with formula on the table in front of a simple background

Targeted interventions result in improved feeding efficiency and growth in infants with cleft lip and/or palate. Cleft lip and/or palate is a relatively common birth defect that occurs when certain parts of the face and mouth fail to fuse during development. Infants with the condition can struggle to suck or extract liquid from the breast…

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Bridging the Gap Between the Genomics Lab and the Cardiology Clinic: CardioGX for Phenotype-Driven Variant Analysis
Bridging the Gap Between the Genomics Lab and the Cardiology Clinic: CardioGX for Phenotype-Driven Variant Analysis 150 150 Abbie Roth

The cloud-based platform is a free tool that empowers clinicians and fosters collaboration to find new genetic mutations that cause heart disease. Finding ways to support clinicians and researchers in accessing and utilizing genomic data is paramount to incorporating genomics into clinical care. CardioGX (CardioGenomics eXchange commons) is an interactive web application designed to help clinicians and…

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Age-Related Racial Disparities in Suicide Rates Among Youth Ages 5 to 17 Years
Age-Related Racial Disparities in Suicide Rates Among Youth Ages 5 to 17 Years 150 150 Abbie Roth

Under the age of 13, suicide rates are roughly double for black children compared with white children. Suicide rates in the United States have traditionally been higher among whites than blacks across all age groups. However, a new study from researchers at Nationwide Children’s Hospital and collaborators published in JAMA Pediatrics shows that racial disparities in suicide…

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Room for Improvement: Heart Catheterization Risks in Young Patients With Pulmonary Hypertension
Room for Improvement: Heart Catheterization Risks in Young Patients With Pulmonary Hypertension 1024 575 Katie Brind'Amour, PhD, MS, CHES
Illustration of heart, CAVD

Identifying risk factors for cardiac catheterization complications offers physicians a way to improve pulmonary hypertension care. Up until a few years ago, cardiac catheterization in patients with pulmonary hypertension was considered a low-risk procedure for children and young adults. Some of the country’s best physicians had published studies showing very few complications among hundreds of…

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A Revolution in Deformity Correction Plus Limb Lengthening
A Revolution in Deformity Correction Plus Limb Lengthening 1024 575 Katie Brind'Amour, PhD, MS, CHES

Orthopedic surgeons demonstrate that acute deformity correction and gradual limb lengthening can be accomplished simultaneously using an internal lengthening nail. In the past, limb lengthening and femoral deformity correction meant a long, painful, very visible process — an external fixator with manual adjusters, a knee that was difficult to bend, high infection risk and more.…

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From What-if to Widely Available – A Proposed Path for Tissue Engineered Vascular Grafts
From What-if to Widely Available – A Proposed Path for Tissue Engineered Vascular Grafts 150 150 Abbie Roth

What if you could utilize tissue engineering, imaging and 3D printing technologies to bring the benefits of a tissue engineered vascular graft to every child who needs one? Children born with a single ventricle heart defect undergo a series of surgeries and procedures to reroute the blood flow through their heart. The Fontan operation is…

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Is Caregiver Education About Sickle Cell Trait Effective?
Is Caregiver Education About Sickle Cell Trait Effective? 1024 575 Abbie Roth
Color photo of Black father holding infant on shoulder in front of nursery background with clouds on the wall

Researchers evaluate the standardized education in Ohio to determine if it achieves high caregiver knowledge. Despite universal newborn screening that detects the presence of sickle cell trait (SCT), only 16 percent of Americans with SCT know their status. To address this issue, in Ohio, in-person education is offered to caregivers of referred infants with SCT.…

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How Can We Optimize Fertility Related Discussions With Male Survivors of Childhood Cancer?
How Can We Optimize Fertility Related Discussions With Male Survivors of Childhood Cancer? 150 150 Abbie Roth

A recent study suggests that fertility is a “later” issue for adolescents and young adults, rather than a “now” concern, leading to low rates of conversation with health care providers. Survival rates for pediatric cancers exceed 80 percent. But late effects can persist throughout the survivor’s lifetime. Among those late effects, infertility may have both…

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Starting the Conversation on Sickle Cell Disease and Reproductive Health
Starting the Conversation on Sickle Cell Disease and Reproductive Health 1024 575 Katie Brind'Amour, PhD, MS, CHES

Adolescents and young adults with sickle cell disease — and their caregivers — care about future fertility. But what should doctors tell them? Until just a few decades ago, sickle cell disease (SCD) was often fatal in childhood. Now that more patients reach adulthood, clinicians and researchers need to ask — and answer — questions…

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Femoral Nerve Blockade May Reduce Need for Intravenous Opioids
Femoral Nerve Blockade May Reduce Need for Intravenous Opioids 150 150 Mary Bates, PhD

Researchers find no differences in postoperative pain measures for patients receiving intravenous opioids and those receiving regional anesthetic. Femur fractures often require surgical fixes and can be quite painful. Although traditionally treated with intravenous opioids, regional anesthesia may offer an alternative option. In a new study, published in the Journal of Pain Research, researchers evaluated the…

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New Guidelines Offer Practical Tools to Treat GI Reflux
New Guidelines Offer Practical Tools to Treat GI Reflux 150 150 Jeb Phillips

An international committee’s new recommendations reflect shifting opinions about acid-suppressive medications and include an expanded diagnostic algorithm. While reflux-related complaints are heard often by pediatric gastroenterologists and primary care physicians, it can be difficult to tell when gastroesophageal reflux (GER) crosses the line into gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) — or how that disease should be…

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Is Whole Exome Sequencing the Future of Kidney Stone Management?
Is Whole Exome Sequencing the Future of Kidney Stone Management? 150 150 Katie Brind'Amour, PhD, MS, CHES

The first use of whole exome sequencing for monogenic causes of kidney stone disease reveals the diagnostic tool is ripe for clinical application. In the first-ever study of whole exome sequencing for early-onset kidney stone disease, an international team of researchers led by clinician-scientists at Boston Children’s Hospital expanded on their prior finding that many…

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Reevaluate the Evaluation of Febrile Infants?
Reevaluate the Evaluation of Febrile Infants? 1024 575 Katie Brind'Amour, PhD, MS, CHES
Black and white photo of infant crying in hospital

For decades, complete blood cell counts have been the go-to way to identify babies at high risk for serious bacterial infections. But recent research shows the popular lab test isn’t as useful as everyone thought. The Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) has worked for the past decade to both evaluate new technologies and…

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The National Mortality Rate for the Comprehensive Stage 2 Procedure
The National Mortality Rate for the Comprehensive Stage 2 Procedure 1024 575 Jeb Phillips

A substantial overall U.S. rate, in contrast to the low rates reported by a few single centers such as Nationwide Children’s, shows room for improvement in handling the hybrid approach for left ventricular physiology. Most published outcomes data on the pediatric Comprehensive Stage 2 procedure come from the few institutions routinely using the “hybrid approach”…

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What Happens When Cancer Remission Is in Question?
What Happens When Cancer Remission Is in Question? 1024 575 Mary Bates, PhD
Photo of leukemia cells under microscope

A new study looks at outcomes for children with leukemia when two tests of remission disagree. In both clinical practice and clinical trials, remission in leukemia is determined by morphological assessment — a person counting cancer cells in a bone marrow sample under a microscope. But more sophisticated technologies, such as flow cytometry or polymerase…

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Quality Improvement Boosts Use of Enteral Therapy in Patients With Crohn’s Disease
Quality Improvement Boosts Use of Enteral Therapy in Patients With Crohn’s Disease 1024 575 Kevin Mayhood
Color image of enteral complete liquid nutritional products of several brands

Refined procedures, tools and support promote this proven alternative to steroids. A team of researchers found that employing quality-improvement methods increased use of exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) to induce remission in children with Crohn’s disease at Nationwide Children’s Hospital. By increasing awareness of the therapy, standardizing procedures and providing support, EEN usage increased from less…

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Growing Tissue to Help Children With Short Bowel Syndrome
Growing Tissue to Help Children With Short Bowel Syndrome 1024 575 Kevin Mayhood

Research using a small animal model shows that it matters where in the body the cultured intestine is grown. Researchers at Nationwide Children’s Hospital are hoping to use short bowel syndrome patients’ own cells to grow extra tissue needed for their small intestine to function properly. Using rat models, the team of physician-scientists found that…

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Small Trial of Omega Fatty Acid Supplementation in Toddlers Born Preterm Points to Possible Therapeutic Intervention
Small Trial of Omega Fatty Acid Supplementation in Toddlers Born Preterm Points to Possible Therapeutic Intervention 1024 575 Abbie Roth
Color close up image of young baby girl looking at hanging toys

Researchers show that supplementation of omega fatty acids may improve symptoms associated with autism spectrum disorder in toddlers who were born very preterm. Researchers from Nationwide Children’s Hospital have shown that omega fatty acid supplements may improve autism spectrum disorder symptoms in toddlers who were born very preterm (<29 weeks gestation). The study was published in The Journal…

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A Better Non-Invasive Method To Monitor Liver Disease in Short Bowel Syndrome?
A Better Non-Invasive Method To Monitor Liver Disease in Short Bowel Syndrome? 150 150 Jeb Phillips

A pilot study suggests that acoustic radiation force impulse elastography can help monitor liver disease in children with short bowel syndrome. Patients with intestinal failure (most frequently caused by short bowel syndrome) are at risk for developing liver disease due to multiple contributing factors, including the underlying cause of their intestinal failure, need for parenteral…

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Somali-Born Women Have Lowest Preterm Birth Rate in Ohio
Somali-Born Women Have Lowest Preterm Birth Rate in Ohio 1024 575 Kevin Mayhood
Photo of equipment for premature infants

Researchers hope the immigrants can teach them how to reduce the rates of prematurity in the general population. Year after year, studies have found that non-Hispanic white women have the lowest preterm birth rate in Ohio, but new research found a different trend. Somali immigrants had a 5.9 percent preterm birth rate in the state…

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Four Reasons Hospitals Fail to Prioritize Drug Abuse in Communities Plagued by Opioids
Four Reasons Hospitals Fail to Prioritize Drug Abuse in Communities Plagued by Opioids 150 150 Kevin Mayhood

Lack of money and expertise, risk and stigma appear to forestall community benefit programming. Communities in Appalachian Ohio are among the hardest hit in America’s opioid crisis, but a study of hospitals in the region shows that under half make substance abuse a priority in their community benefit programs. “These hospitals are comfortable addressing diabetes,…

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A Different Way of Measuring Undesired Events Can Better Clinical Performance
A Different Way of Measuring Undesired Events Can Better Clinical Performance 150 150 Kevin Mayhood

Clinical care indexes allow departments to track failures and harm and continually upgrade processes for delivering optimal care. Three Nationwide Children’s Hospital departments that developed and applied their own clinical index to the care of patients with a certain illness or who underwent specific procedures, substantially improved their clinical performance. An index allows medical staff…

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A Key to Preventing Stenosis in Tissue-Engineered Vascular Grafts
A Key to Preventing Stenosis in Tissue-Engineered Vascular Grafts 600 400 Kevin Mayhood
Tissue engineered vascular graft

Seeding a high number of bone marrow mononuclear cells on graft appears to prevent narrowing. Tissue-engineered vascular grafts hold promise for children with congenital heart disease because the grafts, which carry a patient’s own cells, have the potential to grow and regenerate just as the child’s blood vessels do. But over time, some grafts develop…

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How Primary Care Providers Can Address Suicidal Youth and Self-Harming Behaviors
How Primary Care Providers Can Address Suicidal Youth and Self-Harming Behaviors 150 150 John Hofmeister

Pediatricians are in an optimal position to see early warning signs and recommend treatment. Pediatricians are often in an optimal position to see early warning signs of suicidal and self-harming behavior in their patients, to diagnose and recommend treatment, and to provide referrals depending on individual presentation and symptom severity. To help providers who may…

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Immune Cell Subtype Tied to Asthma in Mice Found in Humans With Viral Infections
Immune Cell Subtype Tied to Asthma in Mice Found in Humans With Viral Infections 969 533 Kevin Mayhood
Illustration of NK Cells, T Cells, other immune cells floating across white background

If asthma development in people parallels mice, the cells’ mechanisms may provide a target for disease prevention. A subtype of neutrophil, labeled CD49d+ PMN, which is necessary to drive asthma and allergies in a mouse model, also accumulates in the nasal fluid of people with symptoms of an upper respiratory viral infection, researchers have discovered. Neutrophils are…

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After Bariatric Surgery, Adolescents Show Decreased Risk for Cardiovascular Disease
After Bariatric Surgery, Adolescents Show Decreased Risk for Cardiovascular Disease 150 150 Gina Bericchia

Three years after surgery, only 5 percent of study participants had three or more risk factors for cardiovascular disease, a significant reduction from 33 percent before surgery. Adolescents with severe obesity who had bariatric surgery showed significant improvements in cardiovascular disease risk factors, according to the most recent “Teen Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery” (Teen-LABS)…

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Large-Scale Genomics Study Identifies Children With High-Risk Cancer
Large-Scale Genomics Study Identifies Children With High-Risk Cancer 150 150 Mary Bates, PhD

Some subtypes of leukemia have a poor prognosis. Genomic studies are helping to identify these subtypes, leading to targeted therapies. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), a malignancy of the white blood cells, is a common childhood cancer. Understanding the genomic changes underlying ALL has led to the development of new, targeted therapies, especially for patients with…

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Making Stem Cell Transplantation Work for Sickle Cell Disease
Making Stem Cell Transplantation Work for Sickle Cell Disease 150 150 Mary Bates, PhD

New regimen offers a promising approach for unrelated donor transplants. Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a blood disorder affecting 1 in every 500 African-American newborns. It is characterized by extreme pain and decreased longevity. Currently, the only cure for SCD lies in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. A well-matched sibling donor is needed for the best…

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Can Spinal Replace General Anesthesia in Pediatric Urology Patients?
Can Spinal Replace General Anesthesia in Pediatric Urology Patients? 150 150 Jeb Phillips

Spinal anesthesia offers a viable low-risk alternative to general anesthesia for a wide range of pediatric procedures, particularly for urology patients. As research continues to illuminate the possibility of neurotoxic effects from general anesthesia in pediatric patients, surgeons and anesthesiologists at Nationwide Children’s Hospital have already sought out an alternative among children 2 years of…

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Cysteamine Appears to Help Clear Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria from Cells of Patients With Cystic Fibrosis
Cysteamine Appears to Help Clear Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria from Cells of Patients With Cystic Fibrosis 150 150 Kevin Mayhood

The drug could help eradicate members of the B. cepacia complex and other bacteria in CF. Physicians and researchers from Nationwide Children’s Hospital have found that the drug cysteamine protects cells of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) against a group of disease-causing and multi-drug resistant microorganisms — members of the Burkholderia cepacia bacterial complex — in several…

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Building Heart Valves From Extracellular Matrix
Building Heart Valves From Extracellular Matrix 150 150 Abbie Roth

Physicians at Nationwide Children’s Hospital describe the use of an extracellular matrix cylindar valve in the mitral position. At The Heart Center at Nationwide Children’s, Patrick McConnell, MD, a pediatric cardiothoracic surgeon, is using an alternative to the traditional cadaveric, mechanical or biological replacement valve. In a recent case report published in Echocardiography, Dr. McConnell and his colleagues describe the…

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Care Bundles Can Reduce Hospital-Acquired Pressure Injuries
Care Bundles Can Reduce Hospital-Acquired Pressure Injuries 150 150 Brianne Moore

Reliable implementation of care bundles reduces the number of serious hospital-acquired pressure injuries Hospital-acquired pressure injuries (PI) are a significant cause of preventable harm that can increase hospitalization costs and length of stay. Up to 27 percent of pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients and up to 23 percent of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)…

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Two Classes of GGAA-Microsatellites in a Ewing Sarcoma Context
Two Classes of GGAA-Microsatellites in a Ewing Sarcoma Context 150 150 Abbie Roth

Characterization of GGAA-microsatellites provides insight in the role of noncoding DNA in cancer susceptibility and therapeutic development. In a study published in PLOS ONE, researchers describe two types of GGAA-microsatellites and their roles in EWS/FLI binding and gene regulation in Ewing sarcoma. Ewing sarcoma is the second most common pediatric bone malignancy. It is initiated by chromosomal…

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How Genes and Environment Interact to Raise Risk of Congenital Heart Defects
How Genes and Environment Interact to Raise Risk of Congenital Heart Defects 150 150 Mary Bates, PhD

Genetic susceptibility plus maternal hyperglycemia interact to contribute to heart defects during fetal development. Infants of mothers with diabetes have a three- to five-fold increased risk of congenital heart defects. Such developmental defects are likely caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. However, the molecular mechanisms by which maternal diabetes disrupts normal heart…

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Vulnerable Population Lacks Access to Beneficial Puberty-Blocking Hormone Therapy
Vulnerable Population Lacks Access to Beneficial Puberty-Blocking Hormone Therapy 150 150 Jeb Phillips

Transgender youth are often denied access to puberty-blocking hormones because insurance companies decline to cover costs, according to a new study. Transgender youth are often denied access to puberty-blocking hormone therapy that may benefit them because insurance companies decline to cover costs for those patients, a study drawn from cases at Nationwide Children’s Hospital suggests.…

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Dopamine: A Rescue Therapy for Fontan Patients With Protein-Losing Enteropathy?
Dopamine: A Rescue Therapy for Fontan Patients With Protein-Losing Enteropathy? 150 150 Jeb Phillips

Patients with quickly worsening PLE saw serum albumin levels stabilize after dopamine treatment. Patients who have undergone the Fontan procedure for single ventricle congenital heart disease do not often develop protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) – but those who do are at substantial risk of mortality and morbidity. Only heart transplant has been shown to alleviate PLE…

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Speedy Development of Support Programs for Second Victims Demands Collaboration
Speedy Development of Support Programs for Second Victims Demands Collaboration 150 150 John Hofmeister

Openly sharing research and resources results in rapid development and growth of peer program for health care workers experiencing second victim phenomena. A career in health care brings many rewards — but it also puts its practitioners at risk for depression, anxiety, shame or career burnout whenever a medical error occurs or a patient experiences…

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The Evolution of Precision Medicine for Children With Aggressive Brain Tumors
The Evolution of Precision Medicine for Children With Aggressive Brain Tumors 150 150 Jonathan Finlay, MB, ChB, FRCP

The Head Start 4 clinical trial introduces risk stratification and builds on the success of bone marrow transplantation for young children with malignant embryonal tumors. Cancers in the brain and spinal cord (the central nervous system, CNS) are now the most common cause of deaths due to disease in children and adolescents. Among these tumors,…

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