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Mary Bates, PhD

Identifying Which Children with Nephrotic Syndrome Will Respond to Steroids
Identifying Which Children with Nephrotic Syndrome Will Respond to Steroids 1024 683 Mary Bates, PhD

New research identifies potential biomarkers in the plasma of children with steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome. Nephrotic syndrome is among the most common forms of kidney disease in children. Although glucocorticoids (i.e., steroids) are the primary treatment, approximately 10 to 20% of children with nephrotic syndrome present with or develop steroid resistance. This is only discovered…

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A Patient-Centered Medical Home for Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease
A Patient-Centered Medical Home for Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease 1024 683 Mary Bates, PhD

The Center for Pediatric and Adolescent IBD serves as a case study for comprehensive, multidisciplinary care. In a new paper published in Inflammatory Bowel Disease, researchers from Nationwide Children’s describe the multidisciplinary care model at the Center for Pediatric and Adolescent Inflammatory Bowel Disease as an example of a pediatric specialty medical home. The researchers…

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Standardizing Training in Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care
Standardizing Training in Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care 150 150 Mary Bates, PhD

In a new report, a taskforce of experts presented their recommendations to standardize training in pediatric cardiac critical care. The authors hope the report is a first step toward more oversight of training and certification in the field. The field of pediatric cardiac critical care is relatively young but growing quickly. Currently, there are 120…

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Validity of the WISC-V Intelligence Testing in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Validity of the WISC-V Intelligence Testing in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder 1024 575 Mary Bates, PhD

Evaluating thinking and reasoning abilities for children with autism using conventional intelligence tests can be done, but with some caution. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fifth Edition (WISC-V) is one of the most widely used intelligence tests for children. However, little is known about the validity of this test in children with autism spectrum…

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Lubiprostone Found to be Safe, as Effective as Placebo in Children With Constipation
Lubiprostone Found to be Safe, as Effective as Placebo in Children With Constipation 1024 680 Mary Bates, PhD
Close up color photo of little boy holding hands on his belly

The medication, FDA-approved for adults, may benefit older pediatric patients with less of a behavioral component to their constipation. Pediatric functional constipation, though common, remains challenging to treat. Lubiprostone is a medication approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of constipation and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation in adults. In…

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Is Tracheostomy Tube Placement in Preemies Safe?
Is Tracheostomy Tube Placement in Preemies Safe? 1024 575 Mary Bates, PhD
Nurse caring for infant in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU)

The procedure is safe and effective in newborns requiring high ventilator pressures. Tracheostomy tube placement is a common procedure performed for premature infants requiring respiratory assistance. Compared to an endotracheal tube, placement of a tracheostomy tube is thought to allow the infant more opportunities for comfort, interaction, nutrition and growth. However, rates of tracheostomy tube…

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Long-Term Follow-up Study Shows Cannabidiol is Safe and Effective for Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome
Long-Term Follow-up Study Shows Cannabidiol is Safe and Effective for Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome 695 473 Mary Bates, PhD
Black and white environmental portrait of Dr. Anup Patel standing in the hospital in his lab coat with his hand in his pocket

Long-term treatment with highly purified plant-based CBD shows continued seizure reduction and no new side effects. The results of a long-term open-label extension trial of plant-derived, highly purified cannabidiol (CBD) show the treatment is effective and safe long term for patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. The treatment had a similar safety profile as in the original…

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Identifying Early Urinary Biomarkers of Kidney Damage in Type 1 Diabetes
Identifying Early Urinary Biomarkers of Kidney Damage in Type 1 Diabetes 1024 575 Mary Bates, PhD

Markers of renal tubule injury and oxidative stress indicate diabetic nephropathy before microalbuminuria. Diabetic nephropathy is a common complication of type 1 diabetes. Traditionally, measurement of microalbuminuria is used to screen children with diabetes for diabetic nephropathy. However, evidence suggests that damage to the kidneys may begin soon after diagnosis, much earlier than microalbuminuria can…

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Specialized Treatment for Severe Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Increases Survival
Specialized Treatment for Severe Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Increases Survival 150 150 Mary Bates, PhD

Most infants with established BPD referred to Nationwide’s BPD Center improve and survive, despite the severity of their illness. In a new study, researchers analyzed the in-hospital outcomes for preterm infants with established bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) referred to Nationwide Children’s Comprehensive Center for BPD. They found that despite the high degree of illness severity in…

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Postoperative Care for Benign Ovarian Neoplasms
Postoperative Care for Benign Ovarian Neoplasms 150 150 Mary Bates, PhD

Study suggests no benefit from routine imaging and supports symptomatic imaging for postoperative management of benign ovarian neoplasms. In a new study, researchers at Nationwide Children’s Hospital led a collaboration with eight children’s hospitals examining the follow-up care and subsequent outcomes of pediatric patients after surgery for a benign ovarian neoplasm to develop evidence-based recommendations…

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Administering NK Cells Post-Transplant Improves Relapse in Myeloid Malignancies
Administering NK Cells Post-Transplant Improves Relapse in Myeloid Malignancies 150 150 Mary Bates, PhD

A Phase I/II clinical trial demonstrates donor-derived NK cells are safe and effective at decreasing relapse and increasing survival in adults with myeloid malignancies. Haploidentical stem-cell transplantation can be a successful treatment for patients with myeloid malignancies, but relapse remains a common risk. Natural killer (NK) cells are a subset of lymphocytes capable of recognizing…

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Stent Implantations Are an Option for Small Patients
Stent Implantations Are an Option for Small Patients 1024 670 Mary Bates, PhD

Stents that can be dilated to adult size are safe and effective for the treatment of coarctation of the aorta in young patients. Studies have demonstrated stent implantation is more effective and safer than balloon angioplasty for the treatment of coarctation of the aorta in adult and older pediatric patients. In smaller patients, however, particularly…

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Two Novel Biomarkers for Urinary Tract Infection Diagnosis Identified
Two Novel Biomarkers for Urinary Tract Infection Diagnosis Identified 1024 575 Mary Bates, PhD

Study identifies two proteins that are elevated in children with UTIs compared to those with culture-negative pyuria. In a new study from Nationwide Children’s, researchers identified two novel biomarkers that could be developed to further fine tune the diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children. UTIs are common, but challenging to diagnose, in children.…

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Cylinder Mitral Valve Construct is a Safe and Durable Alternative for Young Patients
Cylinder Mitral Valve Construct is a Safe and Durable Alternative for Young Patients 1024 752 Mary Bates, PhD
Top-down view of heart valves

The new technique could potentially reduce the number of lifetime surgeries required by these patients, researchers say. In a new study, researchers from Nationwide Children’s Hospital report that pediatric patients who underwent cylinder mitral valve construct, a new technique for replacing the mitral valve, had improved left ventricular function over time. In addition, there were…

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EVALI and MIS-C: Overlapping Diagnoses
EVALI and MIS-C: Overlapping Diagnoses 1024 575 Mary Bates, PhD

Taking a thorough history can differentiate these similarly presenting conditions. In a new report, researchers from Nationwide Children’s Hospital describe six patients admitted to the hospital with concerns for MIS-C who were later diagnosed with EVALI. The researchers discuss the factors that led them to differentiate between the two disorders and arrive at the correct…

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Diabetes Distress Associated With Poor Glycemic Control in Adolescents With Diabetes
Diabetes Distress Associated With Poor Glycemic Control in Adolescents With Diabetes 1024 683 Mary Bates, PhD

Screening for diabetes distress, in addition to depression, could benefit adolescents with diabetes. Adolescents with type 1 diabetes are more likely to experience depression than their peers without diabetes, and symptoms of depression can directly impact adherence to diabetes care. Thus, both the American Diabetes Association and International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes recommend…

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Occurrence and Cost of Infections After Heart Transplant
Occurrence and Cost of Infections After Heart Transplant 150 150 Mary Bates, PhD

Researchers identify risk factors, long-term outcomes of vaccine-preventable infections following heart transplantation in pediatric patients. Recently, a study using the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database found that one in six pediatric solid organ transplant recipients were hospitalized with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or vaccine-preventable illness in the first five years after transplant. Within this…

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Surgical Management of Recurrent Patellar Instability in the Pediatric Population
Surgical Management of Recurrent Patellar Instability in the Pediatric Population 1024 575 Mary Bates, PhD

Medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction via the quadriceps turndown technique is safe and effective in young patients. In a new study, researchers from Nationwide Children’s Hospital demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the quadriceps turndown technique for medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction in pediatric and adolescent patients. Patellar instability is a common knee condition in children and…

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Even Severe Asthma Can Improve if Guidelines Are Followed
Even Severe Asthma Can Improve if Guidelines Are Followed 1024 683 Mary Bates, PhD

Patients treated with adequate medications and asthma family education can significantly improve irrespective of asthma severity. Severe asthma accounts for 5-8% of patients with asthma, but this group is more challenging to treat and is responsible for up to 40% of total asthma-care expenses. The majority of patients with severe asthma have difficult-to-treat asthma (in…

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Can Neurocognitive Functioning Tests Help Predict Future Suicide Attempts?
Can Neurocognitive Functioning Tests Help Predict Future Suicide Attempts? 1024 683 Mary Bates, PhD
Sad black teenage girl

Researchers identify sex-specific deficits in measures of working memory and affective processing associated with suicidal behavior in youth with depression. To prevent youth suicide, researchers are working to identify factors associated with suicide attempts in adolescents at elevated risk for suicidal behavior. In a new study, researchers from Nationwide Children’s examined neurocognitive functioning in suicidal…

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Girls’ Perineal Microbiomes Change Over Development, After Urinary Tract Infection
Girls’ Perineal Microbiomes Change Over Development, After Urinary Tract Infection 150 150 Mary Bates, PhD

Next-generation sequencing reveals different flora associated with developmental milestones in girls, as well as disruptions in patients with a history of urinary tract infection. In a new pilot study, researchers from Nationwide Children’s Hospital evaluated the microbiomes of girls at specific developmental timepoints. They found shifts in the perineal microbiome corresponding with important developmental milestones,…

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Modifying NK Cells With CRISPR/Cas9
Modifying NK Cells With CRISPR/Cas9 969 533 Mary Bates, PhD
Illustration of NK Cells, T Cells, other immune cells floating across white background

A proof-of-concept study shows success in modifying NK cells for multiple myeloma. In a new proof-of-concept study, researchers from Nationwide Children’s Hospital used CRISPR/Cas9 technology to genetically modify natural killer immune cells, which they then showed are able to address a recognized hurdle in immunotherapy of multiple myeloma. “It was an amazing feeling when we…

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Natural Progression of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy for Boys Taking Long-Term Steroid Therapy
Natural Progression of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy for Boys Taking Long-Term Steroid Therapy 1024 575 Mary Bates, PhD
boy with muscular dystrophy completing walk test

New data define expected motor performance at different ages and will help in clinical trial design and interpretation. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating diagnosis, but there are many potential treatments in various stages of development. Clinical trials now target boys with DMD who are 4-8 years old, as it appears that early intervention…

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Neurodevelopmental Trajectory in Infants With Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental Trajectory in Infants With Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome 1024 575 Mary Bates, PhD

Infants exposed to opioids in utero begin showing cognitive and language deficits in their second year. In a new study, researchers from Nationwide Children’s Hospital report the neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants with pharmacologically treated neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS, formerly called neonatal abstinence syndrome, or NAS) through 2 years of age. The results showed that…

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Determining the Probability of a Sequential Slipped Hip
Determining the Probability of a Sequential Slipped Hip 1024 683 Mary Bates, PhD
Kevin Klingele, MD

A new predictive tool offers an objective method to help guide treatment in patients with unilateral slipped capital femoral epiphysis. In a recent study, researchers at Nationwide Children’s developed a scoring system based on radiological findings to predict sequential hip involvement in patients with unilateral slipped capital femoral epiphysis. They hope this predictive tool will help…

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Risk Stratification in Infants With Primary Pulmonary Vein Stenosis
Risk Stratification in Infants With Primary Pulmonary Vein Stenosis 1024 681 Mary Bates, PhD
sleeping infant

Categorizing infants with pulmonary vein stenosis into stable and progressive groups could help inform treatment. Primary pulmonary vein stenosis is a rare, often lethal, cardiac disease. It is challenging to treat, as the disease can be progressive in some patients but not others. In a new study, researchers from Nationwide Children’s describe outcomes among preterm infants…

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Early Intervention is Key to Avoid Hospitalization for Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome
Early Intervention is Key to Avoid Hospitalization for Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome 1024 683 Mary Bates, PhD
Health care provider talking to male teen patient

Study finds that waiting to go to the emergency department for treatment increases likelihood of hospitalization. Cyclic vomiting syndrome is a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by periodic episodes of intense nausea and vomiting lasting hours to days. During episodes, some children become very sick and require emergency department care and hospitalization to manage symptoms and…

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How Has the COVID-19 Pandemic Affected Measles Vaccination Rates?
How Has the COVID-19 Pandemic Affected Measles Vaccination Rates? 1024 575 Mary Bates, PhD
Toddler playing with toys

Researchers are concerned about declining vaccination rates in the Nationwide Children’s Hospital pediatric primary care network. One consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic is that more families are putting off their children’s preventive care visits, causing pediatric providers to worry about missed vaccines. In a recent study published in Pediatrics, researchers at Nationwide Children’s evaluated changes in…

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An Imbalance of Immune Cells Leads to Kidney Scarring After Infection
An Imbalance of Immune Cells Leads to Kidney Scarring After Infection 1024 732 Mary Bates, PhD

In a preclinical mouse model, researchers identify the immune cell balancing act that determines whether renal scarring will occur following kidney infection More than half of urinary tract infections in children spread from the bladder to the kidneys, causing acute kidney infections that can lead to renal scarring. Renal scarring can have serious repercussions in…

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How Have Respiratory Outcomes Changed With New Spinal Muscular Atrophy Treatments?
How Have Respiratory Outcomes Changed With New Spinal Muscular Atrophy Treatments? 1024 575 Mary Bates, PhD
Illustration of lungs on blue silhouette of upper chest on black background

Three new therapies are changing the prognosis for spinal muscular atrophy, but long-term monitoring of respiratory outcomes is still necessary.

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The Role of Health Care Voice Assistants During a Pandemic and Beyond
The Role of Health Care Voice Assistants During a Pandemic and Beyond 1024 576 Mary Bates, PhD

The COVID-19 pandemic has magnified the need for telehealth and other digital tools to deliver health care remotely. In a recent commentary published in NPJ Digital Medicine, researchers from Nationwide Children’s examined the state of voice assistants as an emerging tool for remote care delivery and discussed the readiness of health systems and technology providers to adopt these…

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Exploring the Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Pediatric Functional Abdominal Pain Disorders
Exploring the Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Pediatric Functional Abdominal Pain Disorders 1024 680 Mary Bates, PhD
Close up color photo of little boy holding hands on his belly

A survey finds most children with functional abdominal pain disorders use at least one form of complementary and alternative medicine. Functional abdominal pain disorders, which include functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome and abdominal migraine, are influenced by both biological and psychosocial factors. The underlying mechanisms are complex and largely unknown, making treatment challenging. Researchers from…

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Probiotics are Safe and Feasible for Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorders
Probiotics are Safe and Feasible for Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorders 150 150 Mary Bates, PhD

A pilot trial found a trend toward improvements in quality of life in patients treated with probiotics. Gastrointestinal disorders and anxiety symptoms are commonly reported in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent research in rodent models and neurotypical humans has demonstrated that changing the gut microbiota can improve gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Some studies even…

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Updated Guidance on Oral Food Challenges
Updated Guidance on Oral Food Challenges 1024 575 Mary Bates, PhD

New report offers guidelines and examples for safely performing oral food challenges in clinical practice. Oral food challenges are integral for allergists to diagnose food allergies. In 2009, the Adverse Reactions to Foods Committee within the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology published a report providing guidance for safely conducting an oral food challenge.…

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Advances in Neonatal GERD
Advances in Neonatal GERD 1024 683 Mary Bates, PhD
Dr. Jadcherla

New studies from the Jadcherla Lab provide insights into diagnosing, classifying and treating GERD in infants. Differentiating gastroesophageal reflux (GER), which is defined as the passage of gastric contents into the esophagus, from GER disease (GERD), when reflux is associated with troubling symptoms, remains a challenge in infants. Symptom-based diagnosis and treatment of GERD has…

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Cardiomyopathy in Mothers of Boys With Muscular Dystrophy
Cardiomyopathy in Mothers of Boys With Muscular Dystrophy 1024 670 Mary Bates, PhD

Female carriers of the genetic defect that causes muscular dystrophy in boys show evidence of cardiac fibrosis. An interdisciplinary team from Nationwide Children’s Hospital reports about half of women who carry the genetic defect responsible for muscular dystrophy show evidence of cardiac fibrosis. The study, published in the International Journal of Cardiology, suggests that cardiac muscle,…

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Redo Surgery After Anorectal Malformation Repair Can Improve Functional Outcomes
Redo Surgery After Anorectal Malformation Repair Can Improve Functional Outcomes 1024 575 Mary Bates, PhD

A reoperation can improve continence and quality of life in children still struggling with fecal incontinence following ARM repair. In a new study, researchers from Nationwide Children’s Hospital show that redo surgeries are   safe and may be an effective option for patients with fecal incontinence after an anorectal malformation repair. For many patients, a reoperation…

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An Expanded, Multicenter Look at Gene Therapy for Spinal Muscular Atrophy
An Expanded, Multicenter Look at Gene Therapy for Spinal Muscular Atrophy 1024 575 Mary Bates, PhD
Colorful illustration of gene therapy in action

New study confirms safety and efficacy in children under two years old. In May 2019, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a gene replacement therapy for the inherited, progressive neuromuscular disease 5q-linked spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Approval included all children with SMA under the age of two years; however, the gene therapy had only been…

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COVID-19 in Children With Congenital Heart Disease
COVID-19 in Children With Congenital Heart Disease 1024 683 Mary Bates, PhD

Data are still emerging, but COVID-19 – and the subsequent inflammatory syndrome sometimes seen in children – could have serious cardiac impacts. In a recent review article, researchers from institutions including Nationwide Children’s Hospital outlined the impact of COVID-19 in pediatric patients with heart disease. The review, published in the Journal of the American Heart Association,…

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Prevention and Treatment of Early-Onset Sepsis in Newborns
Prevention and Treatment of Early-Onset Sepsis in Newborns 1024 575 Mary Bates, PhD

Continued surveillance is needed to monitor pathogen distribution and antibiotic resistance. Early-onset sepsis remains a potentially fatal condition among newborns, particularly pre-term infants. According to a new study published in JAMA Pediatrics, ongoing surveillance is required to optimize prevention and treatment strategies. The study included data from 18 centers of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute…

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Technical Aspects of Fetal Aortic Valvuloplasty Predict Success of the Procedure
Technical Aspects of Fetal Aortic Valvuloplasty Predict Success of the Procedure 1024 575 Mary Bates, PhD
Fetus in utero receiving valvuloplasty

The procedure is often successful but comes with significant risks to fetal health and life. Fetal aortic valvuloplasty (FAV) is a procedure performed mid-gestation in a subset of fetuses with aortic stenosis who would likely develop hypoplastic left heart syndrome with no intervention. Although often successful, it is a high-risk procedure that is associated with…

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The Autism Treatment Network Reflects on a Decade of Work
The Autism Treatment Network Reflects on a Decade of Work 150 150 Mary Bates, PhD

Members point to family involvement as key to the network’s success. The Autism Treatment Network (ATN) started in 2005 as a group of clinical investigators with the goal of improving understanding of the medical aspects of autism spectrum disorders. The network expanded in 2008 to become the Autism Intervention Research Network on Physical Health (AIR-P).…

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Comparing Treatments for Intractable Functional Constipation
Comparing Treatments for Intractable Functional Constipation 1024 680 Mary Bates, PhD
Close up color photo of little boy holding hands on his belly

Two procedures are both successful but have different effects on specific symptoms. Constipation is a common problem in children. While a majority of kids respond to traditional treatments, including behavioral interventions and laxatives, a sizable number continue to have problems with intractable constipation that can lead to fecal incontinence. For these children, treatment options include…

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Eosinophilic Pneumonia Brought on by Vaping
Eosinophilic Pneumonia Brought on by Vaping 1024 680 Mary Bates, PhD

A case study emphasizes the importance of a detailed history in differentiating between eosinophilic and infectious pneumonia. Eosinophilic pneumonia is a rare and potentially life-threatening condition. It is often seen in previously healthy individuals and can be difficult to distinguish from infectious pneumonia, leading to delays in the appropriate treatment. According to a new case…

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Systems Analyses Unravel Clinical Phenotypes in Infants with Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection
Systems Analyses Unravel Clinical Phenotypes in Infants with Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection 1024 575 Mary Bates, PhD

RSV disease severity is influenced by innate immune responses, viral loads and patient age. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of hospitalization in children, although most cases result in mild disease. To develop effective antivirals and vaccines, a better understanding of the different clinical, immunologic and virologic factors present in infants with mild…

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Reproductive Health Attitudes and Behaviors in Transgender/Nonbinary Adolescents
Reproductive Health Attitudes and Behaviors in Transgender/Nonbinary Adolescents 1024 683 Mary Bates, PhD

A survey suggests providers may need unique strategies for counseling sometimes disinterested youth on important reproductive health issues. Transgender and nonbinary adolescents have unique issues when it comes to reproductive health. They are at high risk for contracting sexually transmitted infections. Additionally, hormonal or surgical interventions begun in adolescence can risk impairing future fertility. Researchers…

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Helping Children With Sickle Cell Disease Adhere to Their Medication
Helping Children With Sickle Cell Disease Adhere to Their Medication 1024 575 Mary Bates, PhD

Mobile intervention increases medication adherence in the children who engage with it. A study published in JMIR mHealth uHealth shows that an electronically delivered intervention can improve medication adherence in children with sickle cell disease. Hydroxyurea is a life-changing medication for children with sickle cell disease (SCD). However, many patients may not consistently receive their hydroxyurea. To…

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Keeping Kids in Treatment for Opioid Use Disorder
Keeping Kids in Treatment for Opioid Use Disorder 1024 683 Mary Bates, PhD

A multifaceted quality improvement program increases patient retention in addiction treatment. Adolescents and young adults with opioid use disorder often struggle to stay in treatment that’s not designed for people at their developmental stage. The Medication-Assisted Treatment of Addiction (MATA) Program at Nationwide Children’s Hospital is one of the only pediatric providers for adolescents with opioid use…

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Brain Characteristics Associated with Epilepsy and Internalizing Disorders
Brain Characteristics Associated with Epilepsy and Internalizing Disorders 1024 575 Mary Bates, PhD

Diffuse alterations in brain structure and function are seen in youth with epilepsy and symptoms of anxiety or depression. Internalizing disorders, such as depression and anxiety, are common in patients with epilepsy. Specific brain characteristics – structural changes in the hippocampus and amygdala as well as some differences in structure and function of more frontal…

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Timing Steroids to Maximize Lung Benefit and Avoid Brain Harm in Premature Infants
Timing Steroids to Maximize Lung Benefit and Avoid Brain Harm in Premature Infants 1024 575 Mary Bates, PhD
Nurse caring for infant in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU)

Treating infants early may decrease risk of lung disease with no added risk of neurodevelopmental impairment. Steroids are used to treat extremely premature babies with respiratory failure, yet they can be associated with delays in brain development. A recent study looked at the age of first steroid administration and the risks of lung disease and neurodevelopmental impairment…

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