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Kevin Mayhood

Uncovering Why Synthetic Tracheal Replacements Fail, and Hints for Success
Uncovering Why Synthetic Tracheal Replacements Fail, and Hints for Success 1024 575 Kevin Mayhood

“There is no ideal replacement for the trachea,” says Tendy Chiang, MD, a pediatric otolaryngologist and a principal investigator in the Center for Regenerative Medicine in the Abigail Wexner Research Institute (AWRI) at Nationwide Children’s Hospital. “There are many surgical techniques that can manage tracheal defects and disorders, however, for longer-segment defects, they oftentimes require replacement tissue that…

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Unlocking the Structure of Biofilms
Unlocking the Structure of Biofilms 1024 575 Kevin Mayhood
Illustration showing the precise pattern of a biofilm - a perfect, 3D matrix

Researchers characterize a component that stabilizes biofilms, a step toward learning ways to disrupt protection of harmful bacteria. In the extracellular DNA lattice of bacterial biofilms, nature appears to reprise the functional equivalent of Holliday junction (HJ) intermediates — cross-shaped structures formed during the process of genetic recombination, researchers at Nationwide Children’s Hospital report in Proceedings…

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Botox Appears Safe for Treatment of Defecation Disorders
Botox Appears Safe for Treatment of Defecation Disorders 150 150 Kevin Mayhood

Anal botulinum toxin injections (Botox) have increasingly been used in children with functional anorectal and colonic disorders during the past 15 years. A study at Nationwide Children’s Hospital, combined with a review of published literature, shows this off-label use of Botox is safe and complications are rare. Complications occurred in less than 0.7% of 1332…

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Could Restoring CD4+ T Cell Immunity Help Control Hepatitis C Infection?
Could Restoring CD4+ T Cell Immunity Help Control Hepatitis C Infection? 1024 683 Kevin Mayhood

Following childbirth, some women with chronic infection experienced a recovery of HCV-specific CD4+ T cells and a reduction in viral replication. In chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infections, CD4+ T cells that recognize the virus have been so hard to detect, some researchers thought they may be completely depleted. But research led by investigators at Nationwide Children’s…

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For Some Fetuses With HLHS, One Follow-up Echocardiogram May Be Enough
For Some Fetuses With HLHS, One Follow-up Echocardiogram May Be Enough 1024 575 Kevin Mayhood

“Not every patient with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, also known as HLHS, is the same: there appears to be a high-risk group that has significant atrioventricular valve regurgitation, atrial septal restriction or other concerns; and a low-risk group that, on their first scan, has none of these comorbidities of the heart,” says Bernadette Richards, FASE,…

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What Are Long-Term Outcomes for a Child With Bladder Exstrophy?
What Are Long-Term Outcomes for a Child With Bladder Exstrophy? 1024 575 Kevin Mayhood

A study from the Pediatric Urology Midwest Alliance (PUMA) suggests the condition requires lifelong management for most children with bladder exstrophy. Half of infants with classic bladder exstrophy (BE) undergo bladder augmentation or diversion by age 10 and the percentage increases with age, a 36-year retrospective study from five Midwestern children’s hospitals shows. Whether they…

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Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Recommended for Adolescents With Severe Obesity
Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Recommended for Adolescents With Severe Obesity 150 150 Kevin Mayhood

Growing evidence shows the procedures reduce weight and comorbidities immediately and lower risk for associated diseases in adolescence and adulthood. Metabolic and bariatric surgery has been established in adults for more than 50 years. Studies now indicate the procedures are safe and appear to be the only therapy that enables severely obese adolescents to keep…

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Does Newborn Screening Lead to Life-Span Benefits?
Does Newborn Screening Lead to Life-Span Benefits? 1024 678 Kevin Mayhood

To find the answer, researchers suggest data systems to track long-term care and outcomes are needed. Newborns in the United States are screened for a list of diseases, a practice that saves or improves 13,000 lives annually, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates. But, a group of health experts who helped build the…

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A Deep-Learning Computer Model for Predicting Pediatric Patient Health Care Risks and Costs
A Deep-Learning Computer Model for Predicting Pediatric Patient Health Care Risks and Costs 150 150 Kevin Mayhood

The model, which requires fewer resources and less time to develop, outperformed traditional risk-prediction models in prospective hospitalization prediction. A deep-learning computer model was better at predicting the health care risk of 112,000 children in a Medicaid accountable care organization (ACO) than traditional risk prediction models, researchers at Nationwide Children’s Hospital have shown. “Using this…

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When is Palliative Care Right for Families of Children With Single Ventricle Congenital Heart Defects?
When is Palliative Care Right for Families of Children With Single Ventricle Congenital Heart Defects? 150 150 Kevin Mayhood

Practitioners suggest involving a palliative care team early after diagnosis Single ventricle congenital heart defects (SV) disrupt critical blood flow and require a series of complex operations in order for a child to survive. As few as 80% of children born with SV live to age 1, 70% to age 20. Because of the high…

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Linking Structure and Function in Children With 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome
Linking Structure and Function in Children With 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome 1024 575 Kevin Mayhood

Children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome commonly have velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD), affecting speech and swallowing. A recent series of studies finds that anatomy of their soft palate and associated bony structures and muscles differ from children who don’t have the syndrome. The findings suggest that these differences may be associated with speech, hearing and middle ear…

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Regular Physical Activities Tied to Improved Quality of Life in Adults With Fontan Circulation
Regular Physical Activities Tied to Improved Quality of Life in Adults With Fontan Circulation 150 150 Kevin Mayhood

Starting regular exercise in childhood can help lay the groundwork for greater health and quality of life, pediatric cardiologists suggest. Children and adults with Fontan circulation are at risk of a sedentary lifestyle. This is due in part to physicians who advise patients restrict exercise out of concern vigorous physical activity may contribute to venous…

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Type of Anorectal Malformation at Birth is Predictive of Fecal Continence
Type of Anorectal Malformation at Birth is Predictive of Fecal Continence 150 150 Kevin Mayhood

Study also finds fecal continence rates for children born with ARMs are lower than previously reported. Recently published research shows the rate of fecal continence among 4-year-olds who underwent surgery for an anorectal malformation (ARM) as infants averages 40%, and the type of malformation — which reflects severity — is predictive of the outcome. Though…

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Unique Course Trains Young Physicians and Researchers in Muscle Disorders and Therapies
Unique Course Trains Young Physicians and Researchers in Muscle Disorders and Therapies 150 150 Kevin Mayhood

The annual myology course is designed to train the next generation of clinicians and lab scientists in the basics and the latest. Every year, more than 60 young trainees come to Nationwide Children’s Hospital for the annual Myology Course, an intensive, week-long introduction to muscle biology, disease and therapeutics. Hosted by Nationwide Children’s and The…

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Predicting Urinary Continence For a Child With Anorectal Malformation
Predicting Urinary Continence For a Child With Anorectal Malformation 150 150 Kevin Mayhood

Researchers suggest objective, measurable factors can be used to provide families with reasonable expectations In a child born with an anorectal malformation (ARM), anatomical features including a low-complexity ARM, high sacral ratio and a normal spine each independently predicts the child has a higher chance of urinary continence, research at Nationwide Children’s Hospital shows. “When…

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Home Infusions Are a Viable Option for Children, Teens With IBD
Home Infusions Are a Viable Option for Children, Teens With IBD 150 150 Kevin Mayhood

Cuts time away from school and work, and has proven safe Many children with inflammatory bowel disease require medication infusions at the hospital every four to eight weeks, often requiring travel and time off from school and work. But for many children and adolescents, infusions can be done at home or at a local external…

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Do Seizure Action Plans Make a Difference for Patients and Families?
Do Seizure Action Plans Make a Difference for Patients and Families? 150 150 Kevin Mayhood

Families given a written plan were more comfortable with seizure care and missed fewer appointments. Caregivers for children with epilepsy were more likely to bring their children to regularly scheduled clinic visits if they had previously been given a printed seizure action plan tailored to help them understand their child’s condition, manage it at home…

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Finding the Reasons Why: Looking for Answers in Trends of Child and Youth Suicides
Finding the Reasons Why: Looking for Answers in Trends of Child and Youth Suicides 1024 575 Kevin Mayhood

Epidemiological studies are the first step to learn how to prevent suicide attempts and deaths. Suicide is the second-leading cause of death among 10- to 24-year-olds. And even as awareness grows, the suicide rate continues to climb, according to national statistics. But those national statistics don’t tell the whole story. For decades, researchers around the…

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In Defense Against Peritonitis, Antimicrobial Peptides May Help on Multiple Fronts
In Defense Against Peritonitis, Antimicrobial Peptides May Help on Multiple Fronts 150 150 Kevin Mayhood

Study suggests AMPs have potential as biomarkers for peritonitis, risk stratification and treatment. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in the Ribonuclease A Superfamily exhibit distinct patterns when children and adults undergoing chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD) suffer from peritonitis, researchers have found. The findings, published in Scientific Reports, suggest that AMPs in peritoneal fluid are potentially useful as…

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Using Computer Models to Predict How Tissue Engineered Vascular Grafts Will Work
Using Computer Models to Predict How Tissue Engineered Vascular Grafts Will Work 150 150 Kevin Mayhood

Model and experimental data strongly suggest testing TEVGs until scaffold has biodegraded Identical tissue engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs) being tested in small-diameter veins and arteries of a mouse model performed well for 12 weeks. At 14 weeks, all TEVGs in the veins continued performing well, but all in the arteries suddenly failed. During their effort to understand…

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Screening for Cervical Spine Risk Factors Could Reduce CT Scans by Half
Screening for Cervical Spine Risk Factors Could Reduce CT Scans by Half 150 150 Kevin Mayhood

Study finds identifiable risk factors that ED staff can use for evaluation, avoiding over 100,000 unnecessary scans annually. An estimated 8 million children suffer blunt trauma annually, and while cervical spine injury (CSI) is serious, it is uncommon. Screening children suffering from blunt trauma for CSI risk factors could cut unnecessary computed tomography (CT) scans…

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Free Disposal Bags Increase Rate of Proper Opioid Disposal
Free Disposal Bags Increase Rate of Proper Opioid Disposal 150 150 Kevin Mayhood

With or without the bags, families of young children prescribed opioids after surgery properly discard drugs at more than double the rate of adults prescribed post-operative opioids. Handing parents a free drug-disposal bag and discussing its usage significantly increases the rate of proper disposal of unused opioid pain medication leftover after surgery, a study at…

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Uroplakin Plaque Key to Protecting Kidney During Urinary Tract Obstruction
Uroplakin Plaque Key to Protecting Kidney During Urinary Tract Obstruction 150 150 Kevin Mayhood

Plaque appears to help remodel urothelium, allowing kidney to hold excess urine without damage, Urinary tract obstruction (UTO) is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease in children. But the extent of damage caused by obstruction differs from child to child. Researchers at Nationwide Children’s Hospital studying why suggest that uroplakin…

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Why Preteens in the ED Should be Screened for Suicide Risk
Why Preteens in the ED Should be Screened for Suicide Risk 480 320 Kevin Mayhood

Screening revealed that 7% of 10-to-12-year-olds who came to three children’s hospital emergency departments for medical complaints such as headache, back pain or seizures, were at risk for suicide, a recent study found. More than half of children in the same age group presenting to the emergency department with psychiatric complaints such as depression, violent…

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Targeting Therapies for Children With Multiple Organ Dysfunction
Targeting Therapies for Children With Multiple Organ Dysfunction 1024 575 Kevin Mayhood

Anakinra, an interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, may be effective for selective children with MODS who meet diagnostic criteria for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) involves altered function of two or more organ systems and is among the most severe forms of critical illness, with mortality rates up to 50 percent in children. MODS…

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Acid Reflux Index Severity Alone Should Not Determine GERD Diagnosis
Acid Reflux Index Severity Alone Should Not Determine GERD Diagnosis 150 150 Kevin Mayhood

ARI severity plays little role in symptom generation, but symptoms alone are unreliable for diagnosing gastroesophageal reflux disease, researchers say. However, a new study from the Neonatal and Infant Feeding Disorders Program at Nationwide Children’s Hospital shows that stomach acid alone doesn’t appear to have much to do with GERD at all, and responses to esophageal stimulation…

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Vaccine Enables Model to Clear Hepatitis C Virus and Prevent Persistence
Vaccine Enables Model to Clear Hepatitis C Virus and Prevent Persistence 150 150 Kevin Mayhood

Scientists are conceptualizing an effective HCV vaccine using a new animal model. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) subverts responses of immune cells, resulting in chronic infection in more than 71 million people worldwide. The virus causes 1.79 million new infections and 399,000 deaths worldwide annually. Antivrials can cure the disease but are unaffordable or not available…

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Researchers Identify Proteins Triggering Imbalance of Cells in Chronic Lung Disease
Researchers Identify Proteins Triggering Imbalance of Cells in Chronic Lung Disease 1024 575 Kevin Mayhood
Illustration of lungs on blue silhouette of upper chest on black background

A protein that triggers an imbalance of mucous and ciliated cells in patients with chronic lung disease could be a target for treatments to restore airways. Many chronic lung diseases in children and adults have one thing in common: the airway lining that normally traps and sweeps out bacteria, viruses and diesel particulates stops functioning…

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DNA Variations Associated With Prolonged Walking in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
DNA Variations Associated With Prolonged Walking in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy 1024 575 Kevin Mayhood
boy with muscular dystrophy completing walk test

Genome-wide association study identifies two variants that may yield therapies for children with DMD. Researchers at Nationwide Children’s have found that two DNA variants that play a role in gene regulation are associated with prolonged ability to walk in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Kevin Flanigan, MD, director of the Center for Gene Therapy,…

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QI Project Increases Value of Asthma Care in a Large Primary Care Network
QI Project Increases Value of Asthma Care in a Large Primary Care Network 1024 393 Kevin Mayhood

Multiple steps lead to better control of disease, fewer emergency department visits and $5 million in savings. A quality improvement project helped kids achieve better control of their asthma, reduced emergency room visits and cut costs in a primary care network serving 10,000 children with the disease. Through multiple steps, including standardizing assessments and documentation,…

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Feeding Difficulties in Opioid-Exposed Infants — Mechanics and Possible Causes
Feeding Difficulties in Opioid-Exposed Infants — Mechanics and Possible Causes 1024 575 Kevin Mayhood

A recent study suggests altered vagus nerve activity, creating resistance in the esophagus while swallowing. Infants exposed to opioids prenatally often show signs of gastroesophageal reflux disease. But a study by neonatologists at Nationwide Children’s Hospital found that feeding troubles are more likely due to excessive pressure and a lack of coordinated muscle contractions in…

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Preclinical Gene Therapy Study Shows Muscle Restoration in Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Model
Preclinical Gene Therapy Study Shows Muscle Restoration in Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Model 150 150 Kevin Mayhood

Tests of NT-3 gene therapy on mouse models suggest potential to treat a host of muscle-wasting conditions.

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Crafty Hepatitis E Virus Uses Decoy to Evade Immune System
Crafty Hepatitis E Virus Uses Decoy to Evade Immune System 1024 683 Kevin Mayhood

Researchers find a related protein cloaking the virus has differences that could become treatment targets. A protein that doctors use as a marker of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is not directly involved in the virus lifecycle but acts as a decoy drawing away antibodies, helping HEV evade the immune system and thrive, researchers in…

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Weaving an Antimicrobial Safety Net
Weaving an Antimicrobial Safety Net 150 150 Kevin Mayhood

Stewards thread together monitoring programs and new protocols while trimming unwarranted tests and diagnostic speed. This story also appeared in the Spring/Summer 2018 print issue. Download a PDF of the print issue. Studies estimate that 30 to 50 percent of antimicrobials prescribed in hospitals and up to 50 percent prescribed in outpatient settings are either unnecessary…

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Quality Improvement Boosts Use of Enteral Therapy in Patients With Crohn’s Disease
Quality Improvement Boosts Use of Enteral Therapy in Patients With Crohn’s Disease 1024 575 Kevin Mayhood
Color image of enteral complete liquid nutritional products of several brands

Refined procedures, tools and support promote this proven alternative to steroids. A team of researchers found that employing quality-improvement methods increased use of exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) to induce remission in children with Crohn’s disease at Nationwide Children’s Hospital. By increasing awareness of the therapy, standardizing procedures and providing support, EEN usage increased from less…

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Growing Tissue to Help Children With Short Bowel Syndrome
Growing Tissue to Help Children With Short Bowel Syndrome 1024 575 Kevin Mayhood

Research using a small animal model shows that it matters where in the body the cultured intestine is grown. Researchers at Nationwide Children’s Hospital are hoping to use short bowel syndrome patients’ own cells to grow extra tissue needed for their small intestine to function properly. Using rat models, the team of physician-scientists found that…

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Somali-Born Women Have Lowest Preterm Birth Rate in Ohio
Somali-Born Women Have Lowest Preterm Birth Rate in Ohio 1024 575 Kevin Mayhood
Photo of equipment for premature infants

Researchers hope the immigrants can teach them how to reduce the rates of prematurity in the general population. Year after year, studies have found that non-Hispanic white women have the lowest preterm birth rate in Ohio, but new research found a different trend. Somali immigrants had a 5.9 percent preterm birth rate in the state…

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Four Reasons Hospitals Fail to Prioritize Drug Abuse in Communities Plagued by Opioids
Four Reasons Hospitals Fail to Prioritize Drug Abuse in Communities Plagued by Opioids 150 150 Kevin Mayhood

Lack of money and expertise, risk and stigma appear to forestall community benefit programming. Communities in Appalachian Ohio are among the hardest hit in America’s opioid crisis, but a study of hospitals in the region shows that under half make substance abuse a priority in their community benefit programs. “These hospitals are comfortable addressing diabetes,…

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A Different Way of Measuring Undesired Events Can Better Clinical Performance
A Different Way of Measuring Undesired Events Can Better Clinical Performance 150 150 Kevin Mayhood

Clinical care indexes allow departments to track failures and harm and continually upgrade processes for delivering optimal care. Three Nationwide Children’s Hospital departments that developed and applied their own clinical index to the care of patients with a certain illness or who underwent specific procedures, substantially improved their clinical performance. An index allows medical staff…

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A Key to Preventing Stenosis in Tissue-Engineered Vascular Grafts
A Key to Preventing Stenosis in Tissue-Engineered Vascular Grafts 600 400 Kevin Mayhood
Tissue engineered vascular graft

Seeding a high number of bone marrow mononuclear cells on graft appears to prevent narrowing. Tissue-engineered vascular grafts hold promise for children with congenital heart disease because the grafts, which carry a patient’s own cells, have the potential to grow and regenerate just as the child’s blood vessels do. But over time, some grafts develop…

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Immune Cell Subtype Tied to Asthma in Mice Found in Humans With Viral Infections
Immune Cell Subtype Tied to Asthma in Mice Found in Humans With Viral Infections 969 533 Kevin Mayhood
Illustration of NK Cells, T Cells, other immune cells floating across white background

If asthma development in people parallels mice, the cells’ mechanisms may provide a target for disease prevention. A subtype of neutrophil, labeled CD49d+ PMN, which is necessary to drive asthma and allergies in a mouse model, also accumulates in the nasal fluid of people with symptoms of an upper respiratory viral infection, researchers have discovered. Neutrophils are…

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Cysteamine Appears to Help Clear Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria from Cells of Patients With Cystic Fibrosis
Cysteamine Appears to Help Clear Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria from Cells of Patients With Cystic Fibrosis 150 150 Kevin Mayhood

The drug could help eradicate members of the B. cepacia complex and other bacteria in CF. Physicians and researchers from Nationwide Children’s Hospital have found that the drug cysteamine protects cells of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) against a group of disease-causing and multi-drug resistant microorganisms — members of the Burkholderia cepacia bacterial complex — in several…

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6 Strategies for Incorporating Behavioral Economics in Your Practice
6 Strategies for Incorporating Behavioral Economics in Your Practice 150 150 Kevin Mayhood

Behavioral economics combines insights from psychology, economics and marketing to improve or direct decision-making. It can be used to “nudge” patients, their families and practitioners in the direction of better health if used by health care providers. While the use of behavioral economics strategies has limited study in pediatrics, the existing research indicates a number of…

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Children With Autism and Abdominal Pain Have Distinctive Bacterial Profiles
Children With Autism and Abdominal Pain Have Distinctive Bacterial Profiles 150 150 Kevin Mayhood

The microbiome may harbor causes of abdominal and behavioral issues and potential targets for relief. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and functional abdominal pain may have a distinct microbiome-neuroimmune profile compared to kids with gastrointestinal disorders (GI) and those with no GI illness. Building on others’ research showing that Clostridia bacteria in the gut are altered…

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Can Behavioral Economics Help People Adopt Better Health Habits?
Can Behavioral Economics Help People Adopt Better Health Habits? 150 150 Kevin Mayhood

Simple incentives may nudge patients, caregivers and clinicians to make more healthful choices. Behavioral economics has helped electricity customers cut down on usage, new employees to start setting aside money for retirement from day one and, more recently, to change health care provider and patient behaviors. The practice combines insights from psychology, economics and marketing…

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Combining Quality Measures to Improve Surgical Outcomes
Combining Quality Measures to Improve Surgical Outcomes 150 150 Kevin Mayhood

Use a refined morbidity and mortality conference with a national database, a new study suggests. A pediatric surgery morbidity and mortality (M&M) conference that applies quality improvement practices borrowed from industry can be a significantly more effective tool for learning from mistakes and making corrections, researchers from Nationwide Children’s Hospital show in a new study.…

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Assessing Romantic Lives of Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer
Assessing Romantic Lives of Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer 150 150 Kevin Mayhood

In some ways, the group appears more resilient than survivors of adult-onset cancer or those with other childhood-onset diseases. Adult survivors of childhood cancer appear, on the whole, to have comparable romantic lives to others their age, new studies show. Surprisingly, the group doesn’t seem to carry the same burdens as men and women with…

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In Extremely Preterm Babies, SNAP-II Score Predicts Brain Impairments at Age 10
In Extremely Preterm Babies, SNAP-II Score Predicts Brain Impairments at Age 10 150 150 Kevin Mayhood

Measures taken in first 12 hours of life are associated with a host of deficits. Children born extremely preterm are known to be at increased risk of neurodevelopmental impairments, but not all babies born the same early date and weight are equal. Researchers have found that for children born at less than 28 weeks, a…

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